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十步让你练成篮球场上的神投手

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How to Shoot a Basketball Perfectly in 10 Steps
十步让你练成神投手
Step 1 — Shot Preparation
第一步:投篮准备
NBABeing a great shooter starts before you receive the basketball.
要想成为一个伟大的射手要从做好接球开始。
This step is often overlooked by most players and coaches but can be the difference between having enough time to take a good shot or getting your shot blocked by a defender closing out.
很多球员和教练经常忽视接球这一细节,但是拥有足够时间投出一个好球和被防守人盖帽是两个概念。
You don't shoot fast. You get ready to shoot fast — Don Meyer
“重点不是你投篮要快,而是在你充分准备好后,可以让投篮变快” 唐·迈耶这样说。
Here are the three rules to make sure you're prepared to shoot when you catch the basketball...
以下三个原则可以确保你在接到球后做好充分准备进行投篮:
a. Start with your knees and hips slightly bent
a、首先膝盖和臀部微屈
If you catch the basketball with straight legs, it will take extra time to bend your legs before raising up for your shot. This is too slow.
如果你双腿直立接球的话,在你举球投篮之前再去屈膝就会花费额外的时间,这样你的投篮就会慢很多。
b. Show target hands
b、向你的队友秀出你的接球手
Showing target hands to the player with the basketball shows them exactly where to pass to your shot pocket (we'll talk about this later).
向你的队友明确示意你的接球目标手,让他清楚知道球该传到你的投篮手位置。
c. Be mentally prepared to shoot
c、做好投篮的心理准备
You'll never be more open than when you first catch the basketball.
你刚触球的时候,是你出手空间最多的时候。
As long as you're within your comfortable shooting range, you must be mentally prepared to shoot on the catch.
只要在你舒服的射程之内,你必须在心理上做好接球投篮的准备。
Step 2 — Hand Placement on the Ball
第二步:投篮的持球
NBAUpon catching the basketball or raising up into a shot, players must be able to quickly adjust their hands to the correct positions on the basketball.
当你接到球或者举球将要投篮的时候,你必须能快速调整手在篮球上的位置,确保手放在了正确的位置。
The shooting hand must be under/behind the basketball and the balance hand should be on the side of the basketball.
投篮手必须在篮球正下方或者正后方,平衡手(辅助手)放置在球的侧面。
The thumb of your shooting hand and the base of the thumb on your balance hand should form a 'T' (as pictured).
就像图片所展示的那样,投篮手的大拇指和辅助手的大拇指成一个T字形。
All finger pads and hand pads should be touching the basketball.
除了掌心空出之外,你手掌要全部接触篮球。
The only area of your shooting hand not touching the basketball is the small gap in the middle of your hand. Another important but overlooked detail is that the fingers should be spread comfortably wide on the basketball.
另外一个常常被忽视的,但是很重要的动作细节是你的五指要自然分开放置在篮球上面,不要刻意张开你的五指,这样会让你的肌肉处于紧张状态,导致你投出的球不够柔和。
These adjustments must happen immediately upon receiving the basketball.
在你接到球的时候你必须快速做这些调整。
Step 3 — Balanced Base
第三步:平衡基础
NBAThe key to being a good shooter is balance. Everything follows balance — Larry Bird
成为一个伟大投手的关键是平衡。一切都源于平衡——拉里伯德
Most players and coaches believe that shooting success is mostly to do with the movements of the upper body... This is far from the truth. Great shooting always starts with the base.
大部分的球员和教练坚持认为成功的投篮要靠你身体上半部分的运动。这种观点和事实相差甚远,伟大的投篮一直始于平衡的基础。
If a player can't get the base of their shot correct, then it's very hard to become a consistent shooter.
如果一个球员不能正确地掌握投篮的平衡,那他就不可能成为一个稳定的射手。
A balanced base involves three important factors...
平衡的基础涉及三方面重要因素:
a. Feet slightly narrower than shoulder-width apart
a、双脚的距离略小于肩宽或者和肩膀同宽
If your feet are too narrow, it's very difficult to stay on balance when raising up for the shot. If your feet are too wide, you won't get enough lift in your shot. (Have a photo showing too close, perfect, too wide.)
如果双脚的距离过于靠近,那么当你举球投篮的时候身体就很难保持平衡。如果双脚距离太宽,那么当你投篮时就很难蹬地发力。
b. Dominant foot slightly in front
b、重心稍稍前压
When combined with the next step (the turn), this will improve the balance of your shot and release tension in your shoulder.
当和下一步结合在一起的时候,这个小动作可以帮助保持身体平衡,并减轻肩膀的压力。
For right-handed shooters, this means sliding the right foot forward slightly. The opposite for left-handed shooters.
对于右手球员来说,右脚应该略向前一点,左手球员反之。
c. Weight equally distributed on each foot
c、自身的重量平均分配在两只脚上
For obvious reasons, a player should not be leaning to either side when taking a shot. Your weight should be equally distributed on both feet.
显然,球员在出手投篮的时候身体不能歪向一侧。你的身体的重量应该平均分配在两只脚上。
Step 4 — Feet Direction (The Turn)
第四步:脚的方向(转向)
NBAI could have included this in the 'balanced base' section above, but I feel that this is so important it deserved its own step.
本来我可以将这一步概括在上一部分的平衡基础里,但是我个人认为它的重要性值得我单独将它列出来。
When shooting the basketball, a player's feet should be turned slightly. For right-handed shooters, their feet should be turned slightly to the left (11 o'clock). For left-handed shooters, their feet should be turned slightly to the right (1 o'clock).
球员投篮时,脚的方向应做轻微的转向。以右手投篮为例,脚的方向应左转到11点钟的方向(约30度);对于左手投篮的球员,他的脚应该向右轻微转动,指向一点钟的方向。
To understand why this is important, stand at the free-throw line with all 10 toes pointing towards the rim.
当你站在罚球线上十个脚趾指向篮圈时,你就会理解为什么这个如此重要。
If you attempt to keep your elbow lined up with the rim while shooting with this base, you'll notice that tension is required in the chest. To relieve the body of this tension, players should turn their feet slightly which will allow their elbow and shoulder to line up with the rim more comfortably.
站定投篮时,如果你试图保持你的肘部和篮圈保持在一条直线上,胸部肌肉会紧张。为了缓解身体的紧张,球员就需要轻微的转动脚的方向,使肘、肩和篮圈保持在一条直线上,这种姿势投篮会更加舒适。
Step 5 — Consistent Shot Pocket
第五步:持球位置
NBAThe 'shot pocket' is the area a player is most comfortable starting the basketball from when beginning their shot. This will usually be around the lower chest or stomach area of a player and will either be usually be in the middle of their body or slightly to the shooting hand side.
持球位置是球员准备投篮时,持球最舒服的区域。这个位置通常是在胸部以下或者胃部区域,但不是通常所说的身体的中间或者是稍微偏向投篮手一侧。
All players must find what feels comfortable for them.
所有球员必须找到他们持球最舒服的位置。
Each time a player catches the basketball to shoot, they should be bringing the basketball back to their shot pocket before raising up into their shot.
每当球员接到球准备投篮出手之前,他们必须把球放到投篮口袋(持球位置)。
There are two main reasons for this...
这样做有两个主要原因:
Keeping a consistent shot pocket ensures players are shooting the basketball the same way every time they shoot.
保持固定的持球位置可以确保球员每次投篮时动作的一致性。
Since the shot pocket is often low, this will give player much better rhythm as they go up for their shot.
时常保持持球位置较低,会让球员在投篮时具有更好的节奏。
Will there be time when players don't have time to return the basketball to their shot pocket? Sure... But they'll shoot better when they do.
是否会出现球员没有时间将篮球置于持球位置的情况?当然有,但是他们投得更好。
Step 6 — Eyes on the Target
第六步:注视目标
NBAA while ago I asked 15 shooting coaches which part of the rim they encouraged players to focus on when shooting.
前一段时间,我曾问过15个投篮教练一个问题,在球员投篮时他们教导球员瞄准篮圈的哪一个部分?
The answers were surprising...
他们的回答让我感到惊讶。
Many of the shooting coaches were teaching their players to aim for different targets on the rim... Yet all of them were able to develop great shooters. "What does this tell us?" There isn't one 'correct' target to focus on when shooting. Players have a number of options...
大部分投篮教练教导他们的球员瞄准的都是篮圈的不同部分,但他们都能培养出伟大的射手。这给我们了什么启示呢?当投篮时,并没有唯一正确的瞄准目标。球员投篮时瞄准的目标有以下选择:
1. The center of the front of the rim.
1、篮圈前沿中心
2. The center of the back of the rim.
2、篮圈后沿中心
3. The first loop in the net.
3、篮网上的第一个线圈
4. The entire hoop... etc.
4、整个篮圈……还有其他的瞄准目标等就不一一列举了。
Whichever target you decide to use, this is the most important thing you must keep in mind at all times...
那么对于选择的那个瞄准目标,你一定要铭记于心。
Once you find a target you're comfortable with, be consistent.
一旦你找到舒适的瞄准点,一定要坚持,不要轻易改变。
'Front-rim shooters' and 'back-rim shooters' are focusing on targets which are 17 inches (45cm) apart aiming to achieve the same goal.
把篮圈前沿作为瞄准点的球员和把篮圈后沿作为瞄准点的球员是都是把目光集中在目标上,区别就是17英寸(45cm)的距离。
If you're constantly changing the target you're aiming at, it's nearly impossible for you to become a consistent shooter. You have to pick one and then allow your shot to develop using that target.
如果你不停地变换你的瞄准点,那么对于你来说,要想成为一个稳定的投手几乎是不可能的事情。你必须选择一个,然后不断地进行投篮练习。
Step 7 — Wrinkle the Wrist
第七步:手腕后屈
NBAShooting with a straight wrist is another one of the most common problems for youth players. Players who do this will often push the basketball towards the rim (flat shot) instead of shooting the basketball up and through the rim.
青少年球员在投篮持球时经常遇到的问题是,手腕没有后屈。他们经常把球推向篮圈而不是投进篮圈。
Fortunately, it's a simple fix with a visual cue.
幸运的是,通过观察一些微妙变化就能知道自己的姿势是否正确。
The aim of this step is to get the wrist of the shooting hand bent back as far as possible (usually a little before 90 degrees). This will give extra power to the shot and will also create the necessary backspin required to be a good shooter.
这一步的目的是使投篮手的腕部尽可能地向后弯曲(通常说大约屈90度),这样做会给投篮增加额外的动力并且会使投出的球产生必要的倒旋,而倒旋则是一个好的投手应该投出的球的状态。
When bent back correctly, there will be small wrinkles in the skin on the back of the shooting wrist.
当手腕后屈的角度正确的时候,你会看到投篮手背和手腕处出现皮肤褶皱。
This provides a convenient visual cue for players to know if they're bending their wrist back correctly before shooting.
通过这一简单的观察,就可以帮助球员确定他们投篮时的手腕后屈角度是否正确。
Step 8 — Elbow Under the Basketball
第八步:肘置于球下
NBAWhen you're raising up for the shot, the elbow of your shooting arm should be directly under the basketball.
当你举球准备投篮时,要确保你投篮手臂的肘部在篮球正下方。
This requires players to have their upper and lower arm forming an 'L' shape and also have their wrist bent back to 90 degrees (step 7). Doing this will ensure that the basketball will be shot in a straight line to the rim and also have good backspin.
这就要求球员的大臂和小臂成“L”形并且手腕要后屈90度(第七步),这样做是确保篮球以直线的轨迹飞向篮圈并且会伴随完美的倒旋。
Players who flare their elbow out while shooting will often miss to the left or right because they're not shooting the basketball straight.
在投篮时那些肘部外展的球员经常会投失,要么向左偏要么向右偏,因为他们投出的球并不是沿着直线轨迹飞行的。
A player will often flare out their elbow when they don't turn their feet correctly (step 4). This is because the chest requires uncomfortable tension to pull in the elbow when 10 toes are pointing towards the rim.
那些没有按照第四步使脚转向的球员经常会出现肘部外展的现象。这是因为在脚没有转向的情况下,球员如果肘部内收会使他们的胸部呈现紧张状态,从而产生很不舒服的感觉。
Step 9 — Balance Hand
第九步:平衡手
NBAThe 'balance hand' is what we call the non-shooting hand. As the name implies, its only role during the shooting motion is helping to balance the basketball on the shooting hand up until the release point.
平衡手是我们经常说的非投篮手,正如非投篮手字面意思表明的一样,在投篮时它只扮演帮助篮球在投篮手上保持平衡的角色,直到球投出以后。
For right-handed shooters, this is the left hand.
对于右手投篮者,左手为平衡手。
For left-handed shooters, this is the right hand.
对于左手投篮者,右手为平衡手。
If you've been around basketball long enough, you'll often hear this hand referred to as the'guide hand'.
如果你经常打篮球,你会常常听到有人将平衡手称为引导手。
I don't like this terminology as this hand should never 'guide' the basketball anywhere during the shooting motion. There should be no force from the balance hand when a shot is taken.
我并不喜欢这样的术语界定,因为在整个投篮过程中,这只手并不发挥引导的作用。当完成投篮动作时,平衡手也并没有发力。
As the elbow starts to extend in the shooting motion, the balance hand releases flat off the side of the basketball.
在完成投篮动作肘部伸展时,平衡手已经离开了篮球侧面。
If the balance hand isn't flat on release, this means that a player has pushed the basketball with their balance hand (most often with their thumb) while in the shooting motion and the shot will usually end up missing left or right.
如果平衡手不松开,这意味着一名球员会用平衡手(通常是用大拇指)推篮球。而在这样的投篮动作中,投出的球通常会向左或向右偏。
Step 10 — Rhythm Shot + Follow Through
第十步:投篮节奏+跟随动作
NBAThe final step is where it all comes together... Shooting with rhythm involves many parts occurring simultaneously:
最后一步是前面所有步骤的综合运用节奏型投篮涉及到了许多方面,而这些方面是需要在同一时间全部顾及到的:
The basketball is lifted up from the shot pocket. The knees and hips straighten out as the player raises themselves into the air for power.The elbow of the shooting arm straightens up in the air once the basketball has been lifted past shoulder height. (To check if you're shooting the basketball up into the air at the correct angle, make sure that the elbow of your shooting arm finishes next to your eyebrow on the follow through).
投篮是需要把握正确的出手时机的,手臂需要抬到合适的位置。当膝盖和臀部伸直时,运动员跃至空中,释放自己的力量。 出手瞬间,肘关节指向投篮方向,位置高于肩部。(如果要检查你是否以正确的角度完成投篮,就要确保你肘部在完成投篮后,在你的眉毛附近)。
Near the peak of the shot, the wrist is snapped in the direction of the rim so that they fingers are pointing towards the ground. This will ensure the basketball has good backspin resulting in a 'soft' shot.
即将出手的时候,手腕随着篮筐的方向向下压,使手指指向地面。这将确保篮球具有良好的倒旋,使得整个出手动作更加的柔和。
Also at the peak of the shot, the balance hand will release from the basketball keeping perfectly flat. This ensures the balance hand isn't pushing the basketball.
当出手点达到最高时,平衡手从球上撤下,并保持球的运行平衡。这将确保平衡手不会影响到投篮的方向。
The final two fingers to touch the basketball should be the index and middle fingers at the same time.
最后两个触摸篮球的手指应该是食指和中指。
When you return to the ground, the rhythm of your jump shot will have guided your body forward slightly of where you took off from.When practicing, I encourage players to hold this form until the basketball has hit the rim so that they can look up and evaluate their technique.
当你落回到地面,你跳投的节奏会使你的身体稍稍向前移动。在练习的时候,我鼓励运动员保持这种姿势直到篮球击中篮筐,使他们能够抬头并评估他们的技术动作。
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