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2017年梦之城娱乐平台app下截专业八级真题梦之城娱乐平台app Mini-lecture(1)

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The Modes of Language
语言的模式
Good morning, everyone!
大家早上好!
In our last lecture, I was talking about language as part of our semiotic system.
上次我们讲到,语言是符号系统的一部分。
And today I am going to move on to another topic, that is, the modes of language.
今天我们讲下一个话题,语言的模式。
As you may know, messages are transmitted in human language most frequently through two primary modes: speech and writing.
大家都知道,人类语言中的信息通常以两种基本模式传递:“说”和“写”。
Well, you know, there is also a third mode, which is not that frequently used as speech and writing.
当然,还有第三种模式,但不如“说”和“写”那么常用。
The third mode is called signing, which is used by deaf people.
第三种模式叫作手势语,听障者经常用这种方式。
But in today's lecture, we will just focus on speech and writing, and the specific features of these two modes.
但是今天,我们主要讲“说”和“写”,以及这两种模式的特点。
In linguistics, it is commonly noted that speech is primary and writing secondary.
语言学上普遍认为,先有“说”,才有“写”。
Linguistics take this position because all languages are spoken except those dead languages such as Latin, which is only existent in written form.
语言学有这样的观点,是因为世界上说什么语言的人都有,除了那些已经废弃的语言,比如只以书面形式继续存在着的拉丁语。
All children will naturally acquire the spoken version of a language if they are exposed to it.
直接接触一种语言的话,所有儿童都会自然习得这种语言的口语。
They acquire the spoken form of their mother tongue during the formative period of language acquisition.
在语言习得的形成阶段,他们会自然习得母语的口语。
However, to become literate, a child will need some kind of formal schooling in reading and writing.
但是,到了学读书写字的时候,孩子们要去接受学校的正式读写教育。
In many respects, we might call speech "primary" and writing "secondary".
很多情况下,我们会认为先有“说”才有“写”。
It implies that writing has a second-class status when compared with speech.
也就是说,跟“说”比起来,“写”是第二位的。
In fact, it is more accurate to view the two modes as having different but complementary roles.
其实,比较恰当的看法是,这两种模式作用不同却互为补充。
For instance, in most legal systems, while an oral contract is legally binding, a written contract is preferred.
比如,在很多法律体系中,虽然口头约定是有法律约束力的,但是人们还是倾向才用书面约定。
The reason is simple—unlike speech, writing provides a permanent record of the contract.
原因很简单。“写”下来的文件可以作为约定的永久备案,“说”的就不行。
Thus, if the terms of the contract are disputed, the written record of the contract can be consulted and interpreted.
所以,如果约定条款有争议,双方可以查阅书面约定,重新解读。
Disputes over an oral contract will involve one person's recollection of the contract versus another person's.
口头约定如果有争议,双方会各自回忆约定内容,才能对质。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
acquire [ə'kwaiə]
想一想再看
vt. 获得,取得,学到
联想记忆
primary ['praiməri]
想一想再看
adj. 主要的,初期的,根本的,初等教育的
联想记忆
exposed [iks'pəuzd]
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adj. 暴露的,无掩蔽的,暴露于风雨中的 v. 暴露,
 
status ['steitəs]
想一想再看
n. 地位,身份,情形,状况
联想记忆
permanent ['pə:mənənt]
想一想再看
adj. 永久的,持久的
n. 烫发
联想记忆
literate ['litərit]
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n. 受过教育的人,识字的人 adj. 精通文学的,有学
联想记忆
recollection [.rekə'lekʃən]
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n. 记忆,回想,回忆
联想记忆
except [ik'sept]
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vt. 除,除外
prep. & conj.
联想记忆
involve [in'vɔlv]
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vt. 包含,使陷入,使忙于,使卷入,牵涉
联想记忆
complementary [.kɔmpli'mentəri]
想一想再看
adj. 补充的,互补的
 

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