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2017年梦之城娱乐平台app下截专业八级真题梦之城娱乐平台app Mini-lecture(2)

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While writing may be the preferred mode for a contract, in many other contexts, speech will be more appropriate.
拟定协议时人们倾向“写”的形式,而在许多情况下,“说”比较合适。
Because the most common type of speech—face-to-face conversation—is highly interactive.
因为面对面交谈这一说话最常见的形式,具有极强的交互性。
This mode is well-suited to many social contexts, such as casual conversations over lunch, business transactions in a grocery store, discussions between students and teachers in a classroom.
这个模式适用的社会情境有很多,比如午餐时的闲聊,零售店里的商业交易,课堂上的师生讨论。
And in these contexts, interactive dialogues have many advantages over writing.
在这些情境中,互动式对话对比书写的优势便显现出来。
For instance, individuals engaged in conversation can ask for immediate clarification if there is a question about something said;
比如,谈话中如果说过的内容出现问题,谈话者可以立即给出明确解释。
in a letter to a friend, in contrast, such immediacy is lacking.
而在写给朋友的信中,解释就没有这么及时了。
When speaking to one another, speakers are face to face and can therefore see how individuals react to what is said.
谈话时,说话者面对面,也就可以看到对方对所谈内容的反应。
On the other hand, writing creates distance between writer and reader, preventing the writer from getting any immediate reaction from the reader.
而书写拉开了书写者和读者的距离,书写者没办法得知读者看到书写内容时的直接反应。
Speech is oral, thus making it possible to use intonation to emphasize words or phrased and express emotion.
说话都是口头的,因此可以借助语调强调重点词语,表达感情。
Of course, one might say that writing has punctuation.
当然,也有人会说,书写还有标点符号呢。
Well, it can express only a small proportion of the features that intonation has.
对,标点符号只能表现语调能表现出的一小部分信息。
Because speech is created "on-line," it is produced quickly and easily.
因为说话都是“在线的”,方便快捷。
This may result in many "ungrammatical" constructions, but rarely do these rough sentences cause miscommunications.
这可能就出现了很多语法错误,但是这样不讲究的句子很少引起误解。
You know, if there is a misunderstanding, it can be easily corrected.
因为如果发生误解,谈话者可以立即改正。
On the contrary, writing is much more deliberate.
相反,书写需要深思熟虑。
It require planning, editing and thus taking much more time to produce on the part of the writer.
书写需要书写者打草稿,修改,然后再完整地写出来。
Because of all these characteristics of writing, if an individual desires a casual, intimate encounter with a friend, he or she is more likely to meet personally than write a letter.
以上都是书写的特征。因此人们想跟朋友亲密又自在地交流时,一般都是去见一面,而不是写信。
In this case, writing a letter to a friend might turn out to be too formal.
在这种情况下,给朋友写信显得太正式了。
Of course, in today's world, the highly-developed technology has made such encounters possible with "instant messaging" over a computer or a smart phone.
当然,在当今世界,技术高度发达,电脑或者手机上的一条即时信息,就可以实现这样的交流。
And if someone wishes to have such an encounter with a friend living many miles away, then this kind of on-line written "chat" can mimic a face-to-face conversation.
如果想要和千里之外的朋友亲密自在地交谈,这种在线书写版的“闲聊”可以暂时代替面对面交谈。
But because such conversations are a hybrid of speech and writing, they still lack the intimacy and immediacy of a face-to-face conversation.
不过,因为这样的谈话是说话与书写的混合体,跟面对面交谈比起来,通常没有那么亲密,也没有那么即时。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
produce [prə'dju:s]
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n. 产品,农作物
vt. 生产,提出,引起,
联想记忆
engaged [in'geidʒd]
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adj. 忙碌的,使用中的,订婚了的
 
immediacy [i'mi:diəsi]
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n. 直接,立即
 
contrast ['kɔntræst,kən'træst]
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n. 差别,对比,对照物
v. 对比,成对照<
 
punctuation [.pʌŋktju'eiʃən]
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n. 强调,标点
 
characteristics [,kærəktə'ristiks]
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n. 特性,特征;特质;特色(characteristi
 
encounter [in'kauntə]
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n. 意外的相见,遭遇
v. 遇到,偶然碰到,
 
mode [məud]
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n. 方式,样式,模式,风格,时兴
n.
 
mimic ['mimik]
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adj. 模仿的,假的 [计算机] 模拟的 vt. 模仿
 
reaction [ri'ækʃən]
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n. 反应,反作用力,化学反应
联想记忆

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